Steps To Avoid Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly

Steps To Avoid Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly

Introduction

A metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that occur in tandem and increase your risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Examples of these conditions are: High blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

Having one of these conditions does not imply you have metabolic syndrome. Yet, it does increase your chances of contracting a severe disease. And as you develop any more of these conditions, your risk of complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease increases. Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common, with up to one-third of adults in the United States suffering from it. 

If you have metabolic syndrome or any of its components, making powerful lifestyle changes can postpone or even prevent the onset of severe health problems.

Risk elements

The following factors increase the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome:

Age

As you get older, your chances of developing metabolic syndrome rise. 

Ethnicity 

Hispanics, particularly Hispanic women, appear to be at the highest risk of developing metabolic syndrome in the United States. The reasons for this are not yet evident.

Obesity

Having too much weight, in your abdomen, raises your chances of developing metabolic syndrome.

Diabetes

If you have gestational diabetes or a family history of type 2 diabetes, you are more likely to have metabolic syndrome.

Other illnesses

If you’ve ever had nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, or sleep apnea, you’re more likely to develop metabolic syndrome.

Complications

Metabolic syndrome increases your chances of developing:

Diabetes type 2 

If you don’t make lifestyle changes to lose weight, you may develop insulin resistance, which can cause blood sugar levels to rise. Insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes.

Diseases of heart and blood vessels

High cholesterol and high blood pressure can contribute to plaque buildup in your arteries. 

These plaques can cause your arteries to narrow and harden, leading to a heart attack or stroke.

How can the elderly avoid or reverse metabolic syndrome?

Because physical inactivity and excess weight are the primary underlying contributors to the development of metabolic syndrome, exercising, eating healthy, and attempting to lose weight if you are currently overweight or obese can help reduce or prevent the complications associated with this condition. Your doctor may also prescribe medications to help you manage some of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. 

Some methods for lowering your risk include:

  • Healthy eating and attempting to lose weight if currently overweight or obese: Healthy eating and moderate weight loss, in the range of 5% to 10% of body weight, can help restore your body’s ability to recognize the insulin and reduce the likelihood that the syndrome will worsen. You can accomplish this through diet, exercise, or weight-loss medications if prescribed by your doctor.
  • Exercise: increasing your activity level can improve your insulin sensitivity. Aerobic exercise, such as a brisk 30-minute daily walk, can help with weight loss, blood pressure and triglyceride levels, and a lower risk of developing diabetes. 
  • Most doctors recommend 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week. Even if you don’t lose weight, exercise may reduce the risk of heart disease. Even if you can’t get in 150 minutes of exercise per week, any increase in physical activity is beneficial.
  • Dietary modifications: Maintain a diet in which carbohydrates account for no more than 50% of total calories. Carbohydrates should be obtained from whole grains (complex carbohydrates), such as whole-grain bread (rather than white bread) and brown rice (instead of white). Whole grain products and legumes (such as beans), fruits, and vegetables provide more dietary fiber. 
  • Reduce your consumption of red meat and poultry. Eat more fish instead (without the skin and without having to fry them). Fats should account for 30% of your daily calories. Healthy fats should be consumed, such as those found in canola oil, olive oil, flaxseed oil, and tree nuts.

Statistics relating Metabolic Syndrome in Elders

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 28.1 percent according to ATP III criteria and 21.0 percent according to WHO criteria. For 80.6 percent of participants, the two sets of criteria provided concordant classification. 

The metabolic syndrome defined by the ATP III criteria, but not by the WHO criteria, is an independent predictor of coronary or cerebrovascular events and is associated with a 38% increased risk (hazard ratio 1.38 [95 percent CI 1.06–1.79], P 0.01).

The metabolic syndrome affects 21–28 percent of older people (depending on the definition used). When it comes to classifying subjects, the two sets of criteria agree on 80% of the time. 

As defined by the ATP III criteria, the metabolic syndrome provides independent prognostic information, even after controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and the individual domains of the metabolic syndrome.

Conclusion

Metabolic Syndrome in the elderly is a serious condition caused by an unhygienic routine and no medical care. We should take care of our elderly, make them visit the clinic, and take action on time. Timely remedies and consultations with the physician can lessen the effect and prolong the life expectancy of our Elders.